Sewage effluent is defined as treated or untreated wastewater generated from a treatment plant (US EPA 2009). The treated sewage is classified based on its origin in domestic sewage, hospital sewage and industrial wastewaters. Domestic sewage is a complex mixture containing water together with organic and inorganic constituents and large numbers of pathogenic bacteria as well as viruses and parasites (US EPA 2003).
The reuse of treated sewage for irrigation is considered as an important alternative water source in the new water management strategy of the countries that face a severe deficiency of water resources such as the Middle East countries. The organic material and fertilizing elements contained in biosolids are essential for maintaining soil fertility. However, both treated sewage and biosolids contain a large diversity of pathogens that would be transmitted to the environment and infect human directly or indirectly. Therefore, those pathogens should be reduced from the treated sewage and biosolids before the reuse in the agriculture.
Removal of reactive dyes is especially problematic because they can easily pass through conventional treatment systems and without much change. Physical and chemical methods, such as chemical coagulation/flocculation, ozonation, oxidation, filtration, ion exchange, irradiation, precipitation, adsorption and and electrochemical methods, and have been widely used for the decolorization of dyes. These methods are not feasible techniques since they are very expensive, experience operational problems and formation of hazardous by- products or intensive energy requirement. Although physical and chemical methods provide high color removal, they are disadvantageous, since color removal efficiency varies with dye type contained in the wastewater and these are expensive methods. Though, the physical and chemical methods offer some solutions to the problems, it is not affordable by the unit operators. Such methods are often very costly and although the dyes are removed, accumulation of concentrated sludge creates a disposal problem.
Merits of NANOZYME STP Bacterial culture STP – Bacterial Culture in Wastewater Treatment Plants
MICROBIAL CULTURE / BIO CULTURE FOR SEWAGE WATER TREATMENT, MUNICIPAL CORPORATION, SEPTIC TANK, FOOD PROCESSING, FISH POND.
|ORGANIC SEMI-SOLID FORM
|Number of Bacterial Cultures
|52 Different Bacterial Cultures
|Stage of Bacterial Cultures
|Number of Bacterial Colonies
|42 x 10-9 CFU/ml
|Min One Year
Biological degradation is recognized as the most effective method for degrading the dye present in the waste. Research over a period of two decades had provided insight into the various aspects of biological degradation of dyes. There is a need to find alternative treatments that are effective in removing dyes from large volumes of effluents and are low in cost, such as biological or combination systems. This proposal reviews the current available technologies and suggests an effective, cheaper alternative for dye removal and decolourisation applicable on large scale.
Biological removal of dyes from effluents of textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry offers some distinct advantages over the commonly used chemicals and physicochemical methods. These include possible mineralization of the dyes to harmless inorganic compounds like carbon dioxide and water, and formation of a lesser quantity of relatively harmless sludge. The use of microorganisms for the biodegradation of dyes is an attractive alternative to the development of bioremediation processes for the treatment of textile wastewater. Biological methods are environmentally friendly, produce less sludge than physical and chemical systems, and are relatively inexpensive, as the running cost is low. Microbial discoloration can occur via biosorption, enzymatic degradation or a combination of both.
Removal of dyes from these wastewaters has been reviewed with respect to biological decolorization as well as complete biodegradation of the dye molecules. Emerging techniques with reference to biological treatment of these wastewaters have been discussed under aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic–aerobic systems.
Although most textile wastewater treatment plants use biological treatment processes to remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), most dyes cannot be completely biodegraded by the conventional biological wastewater treatment processes (Cowdung dumping). In order to meet more increasingly stringent environmental regulations and laws, new decolorization technologies continue to receive increasing attention.
The many research papers on decolorization technology published in Journal of Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, JTICE from 2009 to date can be broadly classified into biological methods, physical methods, chemical methods, and combined physico-chemical methods. The biological decolorization methods include using bacteria to degrade dyes and using biomass to adsorb dyes. For the biodegradation of dyes, a wide variety of microorganisms, capable of decolorizing of a wide range of dyes are reviewed (Parameswari, 2007 & Saratale et al., 2011).
Bacterial isolates are optimized for growth and biomass production before using them for decolorizing dye effluent. The bacterial isolates recorded maximum color reduction. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were reduced in the decolorized effluent, and a reduction in biologic oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also observed.
Nowadays research has indicated that biosorption, is one of the most promising technologies and the removal of dyes by different kinds of biosorbent materials has been receiving more attention. Biological wastewater treatment is often the most economical and eco-friendly alternative, relative to other physical and chemical processes.
After primary treatment, liquid and solid phases are physically separated. The liquid phase is treated with aeration to allow aerobic degradation of the nutrients. The two important microbial processes at this stage are nitrification and phosphorous removal. Nitrification occurs in two discrete steps. First of all, ammonium is oxidized to nitrite by Nitrosomonas.spp, and nitrite is further oxidized to nitrate by Nitrobacter.spp. Phosphorous removal can occur biologically by the process of “enhanced biological phosphorous removal.” The process is demonstrated by the cell taking up phosphorous within their cell, and the biomass is filtered.
Degrading Bacteria can be classified into different types :
For waste digestion, we can identify several beneficial characteristics that we want our chosen bacteria to have. The “good” bacteria that we will choose must:
Certain bacteria species have these desirable characteristics. They consume organic waste thousands of times faster than the bacteria that are naturally present in the waste. They grow and reproduce easily, are non-pathogenic, and do not produce foul odors or gas as they digest waste. These “good” bacteria are cultured (grown by artificial means) on liquid or dry nutrient medium. These cultured bacteria are then freeze dried to put them in a state of suspension. They remain alive, ready to swim, eat, and reproduce as soon as they are activated (rehydrated) and put into the proper environment.
The proper environment needed for rapid growth and reproduction of these good bacteria must have these characteristics:
Bacteria may be aerobic, anaerobic or facultative. Aerobic bacteria require oxygen for life support whereas anaerobes can sustain life without oxygen. Facultative bacteria have the capability of living either in the presence or in the absent of oxygen. In the typical sewage treatment plant, oxygen is added to improve the functioning of aerobic bacteria and to assist them in maintaining superiority over the anaerobes. Agitation, settling, pH and other controllable are carefully considered and employed as a means of maximizing the potential of bacterial reduction of organic in the wastewater.
Single-celled organisms grow and when they have attained a certain size, divide, becoming two. Assuming an adequate food supply, they then grow and divide again like the original cell. Every time a cell splits, approximately every 20 to 30 minutes, a new generation occurs. This is known as the exponential or logarithmic growth phase. At the exponential growth rate, the largest number of cells are produced in the shortest period of time. In nature and in the laboratory, this growth cannot be maintained indefinitely, simply because the optimum environment of growth cannot be maintained.
The amount of growth is the function of two variables: – environment and food. The pattern which actually results is known as the bacterial growth rate curve. Initially dehydrated products (dry) must first re-hydrate and acclimate in a linear growth phase before the exponential rate is reached.
Microorganisms and their enzyme systems are responsible for many different chemical reactions produced in the degradation of organic matter. As the bacteria metabolize, grow and divide they produce enzymes. These enzymes are high molecular weight proteins. It is important to recognize the fact that colonies of bacteria are literally factories for the production of enzymes. The enzymes which are manufactured by the bacteria will be appropriate to the substrate in which the enzyme will be working and so you have automatic production of the right enzyme for the biological reduction of any waste material, provided you have the right bacteria to start with. Enzymes do not reproduce whereas as bacteria do.
Enzymes in biochemical reactions act as organic catalysts. The enzymes actually become a part of the action, but after having caused it, split off from it and are themselves unchanged. After the biochemical reactions are complete and products formed, the enzyme is released to catalyze another reaction. The rate of reaction may be increase by increasing the quantity of the substrate or temperature up to a certain point , but beyond this, the rate of reaction ceases to increase because the enzyme concentration limits it. All treatment plants should be designed to take advantage of the decomposition of organic materials by bacterial activity. This is something you can equate to lower costs, increased capacity, and an improved quality of effluent; even freedom from bad odors which may typically result when anaerobe bacteria become dominant and in their decomposition process, produce hydrogen sulfide gas and similar by- products.
Consider the fact that the total organic load of wastewater or sewage is composed of constantly changing constituent, it would be quite difficult to degrade all of these organics by the addition of one enzyme, or even several enzymes. Enzymes are specific catalysts and do not reproduce. What is needed is the addition of an enzyme manufacturing system right in the sewage that can be pre – determined as to its activity and performance and which has the initial or continuing capacity to reduce waste. At the present time, the addition of specifically cultured bacteria seems to be the least expensive and most generally reliable way to accomplish desirable results. When you add the right bacteria in proper proportions to the environment, you have established entirely new parameters of potential for the treatment situation. From what has been presented above, bacterial / enzyme products by NANZYME will serve to enhance the operational performance of municipal sewage treatment plants, septic systems, grease traps, food processing waste systems, lagoons, lift stations fish ponds, water estuaries or any system where waste organics are a problem.
How bacteria and enzymes work to digest organic wastes? This process is responsible for the digestion of organic waste.
Bacterial digestion is the process of bacteria, consuming organic matter. Enzymes act to break the organic matter into water soluble nutrients, which the bacteria digest. Using complex chemical reactions, the organic waste is metabolized down to water and carbon dioxide (the final metabolic waste products), providing the bacteria with energy for growth and reproduction.
It may be simply shown by the following equation: AEROBIC DIGESTION
Organic waste + water —–Enzyme—-> Water soluble nutrients + oxygen —-Bacteria—> water + carbon dioxide
Organic waste + Water ——Enzyme—-> Water Soluble Nutrients —–Bacteria—> Water + Carbon Dioxide
Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess.
In the present proposal for the removal of pollutants from the sewage water by using NANOZYME STP BACTERIAL CULTURE (Effective Microbes (EM)- bacterial consortium manufactured in BIONICS ENVIRO TECH having potential to degrade all organic and inorganic compounds present in the sewage water.
The physical and chemical methods are not feasible techniques since they are very expensive, experience operational problems and formation of hazardous by-products or intensive energy requirement.
Being Energy Intensive and more expensive these methods were not implemented at industrial sites
Compared with physicochemical ways, biological methods for wastewater treatment are considered to be of cost benefit, eco-friendly and suitable for reduction of the BOD and COD from the effluents. However, the conventional biological processes have not effectively performed for removal of colour and recalcitrant compounds from sewage wastewater. Bioremediation is a pollution control technology that uses biological systems to catalyze the degradation or transformation of various toxic chemicals to less- harmful forms. So, bioremediation is employed for the treatment of various waste water treatment.
3. Chemical oxidation/precipitation methods are tedious, provide an additional environmental load. Biological methods are often preferred since it has many advantages like rapid biodegradation rates, low sludge yield and excellent process
4.So the intention of this project proposal is to implement the predominant Effective bacteria
(NANOZYME STP BACTERIAL CULTURE) to the Aeration tank to increase the degradation efficiency of the bacteria.
5. The researchers are more focused on environmental friendly technologies for the treatment of Therefore they use biological approach for the removal of contaminants from the effluent.
This formulations has been derived after a 15 years long trial process. It has been specifically formulated to break down through aerobic and facultative anaerobic action, all the biodegradable substances in the wastewater. It is also formulated with H2S degrading bacteria and able to work in a pH range of 2.0 to 13.0.
An enzyme is a globular protein with an active site which bind to substrate molecules and helps to catalyse a reaction by holding molecules in the correct spatial conformation for the reaction to take place. The activities of the enzymes are determined by their 3-dimensional structure. Most enzymes are much larger than the substrates they act on and only a small portion of the enzyme around 3-4 aminoacids is directly involved in catalysis.
Our products are based on the latest advanced technology in biotechnology designed to meet the requirements of specific waste water treatment problems. Biological treatment method by microbes is the only method that can eliminate/degrade the waste problem. Specially selected and acclimated strains of microorganisms supplied in NANOZYME STP BACTERIAL CULTURE products produce millions of times the levels of organic digesting catalysts produced by various type of microorganisms found naturally in different waste. Bacteria are living organisms that continually adapt and grow in the system. They consume the waste, chemicals, medicals.
Effective Microorganism (EM) is the consortia of valuable microorganisms which secretes organic acids and enzymes for utilization and degradation of anthropogenic compounds. Combination of various strains will successively promotes the growth of bacterial population, break down and digest the waste in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to a far greater degree than single microbial strain. Bioremediation process involves detoxification and mineralization, where the waste is converted into inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide, water and methane. When compounds are persistent in the environment, their biodegradation often proceeds through multiple steps utilizing different enzyme systems or different microbial populations.
Number of bacterial species has been assessed for their decolorization abilities and a few of them have also been used commercially. The dominant aboriginal microbes were found competent of reducing BOD up to 97.2%, COD up to 94.7%.
NANOZYME STP BACTERIAL CULTURE effectively treats the suspended and floatable organic debris.
Bacteria have the capability of producing many different types of enzymes that degrade a wide variety of organic materials such as fats, oils, cellulose, xylan, proteins starches and all chemicals.
The quantities of enzymes produced vary depending on the bacterial species and the culture conditions (e.g., nutrients, temperature, and pH) and growth rate. Hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, amylases, and celluloses, etc. are produced in the range of milligrams per liter to grams per liter. Bacteria can grow very quickly, doubling their populations in as little as 20-40 minutes. In some applications, it is common to “boost” bacterial colonization.
Bacteria can produce the complete “team” of enzymes that are necessary to degrade and consume the organic materials present in equalization tank. Bacteria can adapt to a range of conditions and food supplies. They can change the type of enzymes that they produce if the food source changes. They can protect themselves from changes in environmental conditions by forming colonies, biofilms, or spores. Production of enzymes begins as soon as the bacteria begin to grow. The cells must obtain nutrients from their surroundings, so they secrete enzymes to degrade the available food. The quantities of enzymes produced vary depending on the bacterial species and the culture conditions (e.g., nutrients, temperature, and pH) and growth rate. Hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, amylases, and celluloses, etc. are produced in the range of milligrams per liter to grams per liter. Bacteria can grow very quickly, doubling their populations in as little as every minute. so the retention time, aeration time, efficiency of MBBR will increase while inoculating external source of Bacteria.
2. Aeration Tank -Activated Sludge Process
The activated sludge of the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment works is a complex ecosystem of competing organisms. Small molecular weight compounds diffuse into the bacteria (ingestion) through the cell wall. At the same time, some larger complex molecules that have been synthesised within the bacteria, pass outwards. This process is referred to as secretion. The secretions include slimes and gels, that may bond the bacteria together, and also enzymes. The enzymes break down large organic molecules into smaller monomers that are small enough to be ingested. The bacteria use the ingested molecules for the synthesis of new molecules, in the process of growth. When they have reached normal size, the bacterium divides into two, and the process is repeated. If nutrient molecules are not limiting, this results in exponential growth in the numbers of bacteria. The bacteria in a wastewater treatment plant comprise both heterotrophs and autotrophs. The heterotrophic or carbonaceous bacteria are the predominant group of organisms. They are characterised by feeding mainly on organic carbon molecules rather than inorganic ones. By contrast, the autotrophs take in inorganic chemicals, and use these in the synthesis of organic compounds. The nitrifying bacteria that remove ammonia from the wastewater are the most important of this group. There are relatively few species of autotrophs, and since they have low growth rates, they tend to be out-competed by the faster-growing heterotrophs.
In a well-maintained aeration tank, the bacteria are concentrated in the flocculent material of the activated sludge, although some always occur free in the wastewater. The flocs are formed from aggregates of non- living organic polymers that are probably secreted by bacteria. The bacteria are adsorbed on to the internal and external surfaces of the floc, and a medium sized floc may harbour several million bacteria. Immediately after the wastewater enters the aeration tank, the fine particulates, colloidal particles and large molecules, become entangled with, and adsorbed to, the floc material. This has the advantage that the enzymes that are secreted by the bacteria into the water, will tend to be confined in the vicinity of the substrate, thereby facilitating their digestion.
Some goes along the pathway of catabolism or Respiration and ends up as carbon dioxide. This carbon is lost to the system. The remaining organic carbon follows the anabolism or Growth pathway and ends up in new biomass. This carbon is therefore retained in the system. The purpose of respiration is to provide the energy that is required for growth and for the maintenance of the bacterium. These three processes – Ingestion, Respiration and Growth – are very highly coupled or meshed. No one process can go faster than the other. One implication of this is that, for instance, if you measure the respiration rate, you are indirectly also measuring the rate of growth and the rate of carbon ingestion.
Biological oxygen Demand
‘Soft’ and ‘Hard’ BOD The time-course for the removal of the organic carbon varies with the ability of the activated sludge bacteria to ingest it. Small molecular weight compounds will start to be removed from the sewage immediately after it has entered the activated sludge tanks. Their removal may be completed in 1 –
2 hours. This group of compounds is often referred to as the readily biodegradable or ‘Soft’ BOD. Other, higher molecular weight compounds will take several hours to be degraded and removed. Yet other compounds are more recalcitrant, and may still be present after several days. This less readily biodegradable BOD is often referred to as ‘Hard’ BOD.
What happen without Aeration / blower off ?
These include possible mineralization of the dyes to harmless inorganic compounds like carbon dioxide and water, and formation of a lesser quantity of relatively harmless sludge. The use of microorganisms for the biodegradation of dyes is an attractive alternative to the development of bioremediation processes for the treatment of textile wastewater. Biological methods are environmentally friendly, produce less sludge than physical and chemical systems, and are relatively inexpensive, as the running cost is low. Microbial discoloration can occur via biosorption, enzymatic degradation or a combination of both.
Microbial NANOZYME STP Bacterial culture grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen (Facultative microbes). Non- corrosive, non-pathogenic and low quantities of use, making it safe and easy to handle and store.
This microbial NANOZYME STP BACTERIAL CULTURE effectively treats the suspended and floatable organic debris. Reduces COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), Reduces BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), Reduces TDS – Total Suspended solids, TSS (Total Suspended Solids) Combination of various strains will successively promotes the growth of bacterial population, break down and digest the waste in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to a far greater degree.